Commercial Elite

by | Apr 4, 2014 | History | 0 comments

From 1870 on, Medan developed rapidly due to the burgeoning plantation
industry in East Sumatra, becoming the financial and administrative
centre of plantation crops (tobacco, rubber, and palm oil). Workers were
imported from India, China, and Java with Chinese traders starting retail
and intermediate businesses. The Chinese commercial elite had several
features in common—an orientation towards Singapore, Penang and
China, Chinese networks, and activities in social and educational projects.
The Penang connection was especially clear in education, language, and

Dirk A. Buiskool

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